The history of animal testing dates back to the early years of ancient Romans. The ancient Rome tested animals slightly not studying many body parts as the scholars did later. Human history is heavily tied to animal evolution, and scientists often considered animals to carry out studies and tests that would be done by any human being. Various artists decided to pursue anatomical studies and investigation about bone and muscle structure. Some artists discovered how blood circulated in an animal by using a live deer. England and France were among the first countries to carry out animal testing since they maintained a view that animals do not feel any pain like human beings. Views about animals not feeling pain persisted even up to the twentieth century (Rowan, 2007).
Later in the early centuries, some scientists considered using anaesthetics to reduce pain among animals tested. This move helped reduce pain caused by needles and other biological instruments. However, other issues relating to the number of animals came up. Many animal activists blamed scientists for using many animals for a single research topic. Additionally, some scientists were using same animals for repetitive tests. Activists considered it uncaring to inflict pain on animals in this manner. The first public protest against animal rights started in France. When England foresaw that the protests would spark chaos in its boundaries, it went ahead to adopt laws and regulations for animal testing. In 1876, the “Cruelty to Animals Act” came into existence to guard and secure animal rights in England. The dynamic tension between scientists and the society set the stage for activists and scholars involvement later in the twentieth century (Bryan et al, 2007).
Animal testing methods vary depending on the laboratories and each of the continents. The methods depend on the animal rights acts and the extent of the research. The type of animals under testing also determines the type of methods selected. Due to public concerns, scientists should find the most ethical method to use when testing animals. The method should be realistic and produce perfect results without inflicting much pain on an animal. In the ancient times, any method could work well but today, issues to do with conformity have pushed the search for better methods to higher levels. There are methods with replacement alternatives. These methods use less number of animals during any testing session. Furthermore, it separates animals into categories so that each test uses the best machines available (Anderegg et al, 2006).
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Reasons for animal testing continue to change every season. In the ancient times, animal testing was done to test several effects of drugs while lab students operated animals for learning purposes. Today, animal testing plays key roles in helping with scientific researches into new medicines within the market. Animal testing helps in treating new diseases in the world. Animals are used to check the effects whether humans can endure them (Bishop and Nolen, 2001).
The society is in a huge dilemma because very few individuals use animals to benefit their own interests. Scholars and artists represent a small percentage of human beings in a society. The continued importance of animals in rituals and ceremonies continue to bring confusions because at some extreme ends people value certain animals that could be under testing in the lab. Improving testing methods and making the whole affair public will continue to reduce the overall poor perception about animal testing within the society. The public needs adequate awareness about the whole animal testing idea. Involving the society will make it ethical for deserving activists may witness the way animals are taken care of in a lab facility (Rothschild, 1986).