It is a well-known fact that pollution and poverty in the third world country are the most important problems in our days. A great number of works devote to them, a lot of specialists of different areas try to solve such problems, and as a matter of fact they are global and under discussion.
Speaking about this problem it is very important to note that there are different points of view to poverty and pollution. For example, some economists and businessmen consider that pollution is the price of progress and poverty; it is the necessary stratum of society which should exist in the developed industrial world. However, William H. Shaw (2010) studying pollution and poverty gives many convincing facts that pollution and poverty destroy the economic system and decrease the level of life of all people in the world (Shaw, 2010). To understand better such problems and come to the definite solutions of them, different attitudes towards pollution and poverty should be investigated. This paper examines William H. Shaw’s research and points of view of other investigators to show the main reasons of these problems and ways how to solve them.
In the article William H. Shaw (2010) describes the most polluted place on Earth which is situated in Brazil and called as the “valley of death”. The level of life of its citizens is very low, and the ecology of such place is rather dangerous. Low white-blood-cell count, different respiratory diseases, infant mortality is not the whole list of consequences which are caused by pollution and poverty (Shaw, 2010).
A university professor of public health Dr. Oswaldo Campos believes that polluted air in the third world country is simply the price of world’s progress.
However, a director of National Economic Council Lawrence Summers indicates three reasons why the World Bank could encourage the migration of polluting industries to the third world countries. First of all, he believes that the level of pollution of a country depends on its citizen’s level of life. Secondly, Summers considers that not only big cities should be dirty, that is why pollution has to migrate to clean small places. Thirdly, a director of National Economic Council is sure that a clean environment is better for people than good earnings (Shaw, 2010). His point of view is under discussion and there are some supporters and opponents, but William H. Shaw admits that pollution and poverty undermine economic growth, and he gives many examples which show the direct connection between economic progress and development, on one hand, and pollution controls and environmental protection, on the other hand.
Feng Helen Liang (2006) examines the advantages and disadvantages of foreign direct investment and its influence on the local environment and citizens’ standards of living (Liang, 2006). It is clear from the observations that there are some benefits of this kind of industry for the poor places, such as high level of total industrial output, modern technique instead of the simple old one, and decreasing of the level of local unemployment owing to new job placement (Liang, 2006).
Nevertheless one should consider the problem from another angle, taking to the consideration that the economic growth rate in the third world countries coexists with harmful effect on the local environment and increasing air, water and soil pollution (Liang, 2006). Liang (2006) with the help of accountings proves that rise of income causes increase of pollution and local poverty. However, she points out the fact that if to take to the consideration location of the foreign direct investment that should be far from the inhabited localities and local ponds, pollution will decrease (Liang, 2006).
Harrison (2006) proposes in his book some means how to decrease global pollution. He considers that the most powerful polluting industries should use emission limits. Such approach is suitable for all kinds of industry, and it is not very difficult to realize. By the way, it is necessary to take into account the definite features of local industries. The author also believes that the easiest way not to waste much water is simply to control the quantity of it. The only country, which constantly complies with the rule, is Great Britain. In order to regulate the level of plants’ pollution, there are two companies: the first one is the Pollution Hazard Appraisal, which assesses the risks of pollution, and the second company is the Operator Performance Appraisal, which determines the plants’ abilities to manage risks of pollution (Harrison, 2006).
According to the William H. Shaw’s work (2010) people should admit Summers’ explanation why pollution and poverty coexist. In the third world countries, business may conduct operations and does not take into account the level of pollution, because inhabitants take care of their earnings more than of the ecology of their native country. It is a well-known fact that the attenuation of the environmental protection and high level of pollution causes the decrease of economy, simultaneously causing the increase of unemployment and, as a matter of fact, poverty of inhabitants.
Liang (2006) determines the ethical implications of environmental pollution caused by businesses in the third world countries. She explains such phenomenon as a mutual benefit. On one hand, citizens of the third world countries need job places, plants with modern equipment and high earnings. The other side of the coin is that pollution leads to economic decrease and, as the consequence, to the poverty. William H. Shaw (2010), however, notices that people all over the world have a moral right to live in the country they want, and breathe fresh air, drink unpolluted water and eat food without harmful effect to your health.
The solution of such problems is proposed by Harrison (2006). His simple, suitable for almost all plants, and real plan explains how to overcome pollution and poverty, and that it is worthy to do. It is very important to note that usage of emission limits by the most powerful and biggest industries, and the control by organizations of the level of pollution will protect environment, save it clean and preserve the health of local citizens. However, one should not forget that there are a lot of the third world countries where people suffer from air, water and soil pollution. Such harmful factors seriously influence environment and lead to serious illnesses. That is why wealthy nations should have an obligation to provide poorer nations with greener industries, sources of energy and simply help them develop to live in a healthy society.
Nevertheless, one should accept that the revised works try to show us harmful effect of economic growth and its connection to the ecological situation of a country. The economic growth rate depends on the level of living and human health. It should be admitted that mainly all researches which are devoted to the problem of pollution and poverty have the same aim, which is to solve such problems.
In conclusion, it is necessary to underline that pollution and poverty are under discussion and very popular topic of researches. There are many third world countries where inhabitants suffer from polluted air, water and food. People are used to live in such awful conditions thanks to the greatest plants or factories. However, there are some advantages of such harmful manufacturing. First of all, these great companies provide local people with work places. Second, the old equipment and tools of the plant are exchanged into the new one. Third, level of economic growth in the poor countries becomes higher than before. In spite of all these positive factors, the main and the most important disadvantage of huge manufacturing is environmental pollution. To avoid such harmful effect on the nature, one should follow the rules of environmental protection. Only human health and normal standards of living make people happy. The greatest contribution of the researches about poverty and pollution is in discussing the ways of these problems solution. Economists and ecologists should find resolution together. Taking into account both points of view, they must think about the future of the whole planet. Means and methods of research and solutions should be simple and available. Next time it would be interesting to examine modern tools which help plants to avoid pollution of environment without detriment to the productivity.
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