Female genital mutilation is also referred to as the female genital cutting. The World Health Organization defines FGM as all actions that involve partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia. It can include any other injury to the female genital organs not intended for medical purposes. This practice is carried out on girls. It can be done at the age from few days old to puberty. This study intends to examine clear-cut data and other researched information on the current trends of female genital mutilation in Kenya (KDHS, 1998). FGM remains a serious challenge in most African countries. For instance, WHO approximates a population of 90-95 million women to have undergone the practice in the last three decades (KDHS, 1998). This study is based on the electronic data, OVID database, Pubmed and ScienceDirect. The following key words are used: FGM, FGC, Female Genital Mutilation in Africa, role of education in reducing FGM.
It is notable that the data of northern Kenya communities is not available in this study, however, the research indicates that infibulations are nearly universal amongst the Kenyan populace. The clitoridectomy and excision are the major forms of female genital mutilation practiced in the rest of the country (KDHS, 1998). The current issue surrounding female genital mutilation includes partial success of education in order to eliminate the practice. It is imperative to note that education about FGM has not successfully managed to discourage the local communities from practice.
This study reveals that a large number of maidens who carry out the practice on the young girls still use unsterilized instruments. As mentioned in the previous paper, sharing of unsterilized equipment among the initiates has caused a worrying situation of HIV and other related infections (Chege, 94). Spread of HIV amongst the initiates due to the use of unsterilized tools is the most devastating current trend in Kenya and across numerous African countries (KDHS, 1998). It is, however, vital to observe that the FGM is still practiced in the European countries, though in considerably low percentages. Moreover, the practice in these countries is much more safe and hygienic.
This study reveals that long-term complications linked to such practice arise rather from infibulations than clitoridectomy (Boyle, 13). This trend turned into numerous cases of death due to the interference of the drainage of urine and menstrual blood. Other side effects attributed to this practice include abscesses, delayed healing, septicemia, gangrene, pelvic pain and ulcers. It is fundamental to note that recurring stitch abscesses and the splitting of poorly healed scars, especially on the clitoral artery, has continued to harm the women who undergo the FGM. One of the most negative consequences of such practice is that approximately 24% of women became unable to deliver, experiencing long-term and sometimes lifetime complications (Chege, 97).
Another current issue emerging from the FGM is the risk of infibulated women in giving birth. It is significant to note that deinfibulation should be performed to ease the process of parturition. Indeed, this issue has crept quietly but rather speedily amongst the Kenyan women and the African women at large. This issue needs immediate address since its effects are worrying, and if this trend continues, then 60% of women will be facing vesicovaginal fistula (Boyle, 14). On the one hand, this is a serious and distressing condition of the urinary incontinence, which will continue to be ostracized by conscious societies. On the other hand, the problems related to delivery have emerged amongst the immigrants in North America and Europe. Moreover, this study indicates that superfluous caesarean section has been practiced. However, speedy efforts taken by departments of health of these nations have trained and equipped the practitioners to handle such cases.
Despite the numerous negative current problems emerging from the female genital mutilation, this study finds out that positive present-day issue on reducing female genital mutilation has been appreciated. This research reveals that education is taken as a different dimension from the norm to address the rising trend of FGM among the majority of communities in Kenya and, indeed, other African countries (Maligaye, 42). Provision of education on the issue of FGM and its effects has been incorporated in the curriculum. It is imperative to note that the system of educating the young girls on FGM as outlined in the curriculum has immensely contributed to creating awareness. The teenage girls are well informed on the FGM and majority of them have consistently accused their parents and guardians who entice them to have the cut. These matters have been heard and determined in court of law and have successfully served as a precedent for those who intend to violate the law on FGM.
In conclusion, current issues that surround the female genital mutilation, as discussed in this paper, have immense effects on the welfare of women in Kenya and across the globe. It is essential to promote positive strategies in reducing the FGM to bridge the gap between the worrying trends in Africa and the less common trends in Europe.