Category: Health

Risk Factor in the Societies of Canada

This paper features an increase of the important CVD (cardiovascular disease) risk factor in the societies of Canada, which has posed an emergent threat. To raise awareness about the effects of the cardiovascular disease risks and changes on disease burdens, smoking-attributable mortality for every health area in the Canadian population has been estimated at this stage. Therefore, cardiovascular disease is a current health issue in Canada, which requires an immediate attention of the Canadians.

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During the last two decades, a third of deaths in Canada were caused by cardiovascular disease infection. Cerebrovascular and Ischemic heart disease caused above 60 percent and 20 percent of the deaths correspondingly. The death charge for the Ischemic heart disorder among males rose slightly till 1966 and then lowered considerably while the death rates of females that have been declining at least from the early 1961s, showing speed reduction. As a result, the death rates of men remain almost two times higher than the ones of women. The lessening was initially noted among males of 24 - 35 years old  though became obvious to a broader extent. The death rates for cerebrovascular disorder have slowly increased for both sexes from the 1950s (Machariah 307). The increase has been conspicuous among women who initially had the lower rate. Marked geographic variations in death rates exist in Canada in spite of the incline in mortality rates for both cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease in all areas of Canada. Surprising regional variations in periods of onset of such increase have been confirmed. In fact, cardiovascular disease is a current issue that is posing threats to the population of Canada. For ischemic heart disorders, Ontario upholds the highest and the Prairies the lowest death rates. Quebec, in spite of a retained increase, still ranks as the third whilst the Pacific area indicates the second from the lowest rates of mortality in Canada. The Atlantic area indicated the lowest death rates in the time reviewed. The increase in the deaths from ischemic heart disorders in Canada (16.4 percent between 1968 and 1979) should be measured real for different reasons. Direct proof is not obtainable to elucidate if the increase is the result of increased incidence, reduced survival or even a grouping of both factors (Jabine 84).

Cardiovascular Disease Refers

Cardiovascular disease refers to heart diseases affecting the circulation system. Cardiovascular diseases affect the heart, blood vessels and blood capillaries. The diseases lead to infections in other parts of the body, such as kidneys, the brain and lungs. The main cause of deaths in Canada, among adult men and women is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, cardiovascular disease is a current health issue in the country. Heart diseases affect a reasonable number of Canadians causing immediate threat to their lives. There are six major types of cardiovascular disease as discussed below.

  • According to Gross et al.(100-136), the most common type of cardiovascular disease in Canada is the Ischemic heart disease. Ischemic heart disease does not only affect Canada but also other industrialized nations around the world. Most of the deaths reported in Canada are the result of Ischemic heart disease. It refers to the interruption of blood circulation into a heart muscle. Ischemic heart disease is caused by partial blockage of coronary arteries resulting to insufficient oxygenated blood in the heart muscle (Mwangi). This causes symptoms such as shortness of breath (dyspnea) and chest pain (angina). In severe cases, there is a complete blockage of the arteries causing damage to the heart tissues (necrosis) or heart attack which is commonly referred to myocardial infarction.
  • The second type of cardiovascular disease affecting the Canadians is the Cerebrovascular disease, or a stroke. The stroke refers to the interruption of blood circulation into the brain. The lack of blood circulation in the brain for less than twenty four hours causes a transient ischemic attack. Extended blockage has long-term effects to the brain and causes a stroke, or cerebrovascular thrombosis. Blood vessels in the brain sometimes rupture, which results into long term impacts (Jabine 49).
  • The third type of cardiovascular disease is the Peripheral vascular disease, which affects the circulation of blood, basically in the legs. This causes pain in the calves, particularly when walking.
  • The fourth type of heart disease affecting the Canadians is heart failure. It occurs when the body lacks blood as a result of failure of pumping action to pump enough blood to all parts of the body. Heart failure is caused by destruction of the heart muscle as a result of heart attack. Heart muscle disease is known as cardiomyopathy, or excessive consumption of alcohol. Patients suffering from heart failure complain of swelling of the legs and shortness of breath.
  • Mwangi highlighted that rheumatic heart disease is the fifth type of heart disease, which had been common in Canada for a long period of time. The condition starts in the childhood as a result of a bacterial infection at the heart valves and joints. The heart problem is manifested later in life. The damaged valves are replaced through an operation. This disease can also cause other infections attacking the heart’s inner tissues, such as the valves known as endocarditis, as well as the outer tissues of the heart known as pericarditis (Mwangi 214).
  • The sixth and the last common type of cardiovascular disease is the congenital heart disease. This is a birth defect in which a child is born with defective heart structure. The defects are either simple or complex. In simple congenital heart diseases, the heart has a small hole on the internal walls of the heart whereas, in complex conditions, the defection affects blood circulation through the lungs and heart. Congenital heart diseases sometimes cause death unless they are diagnosed and corrected through surgical intervention. Additionally, congenital heart disease can cause a disability, which is corrected through surgery when the patient matures. Sometimes the disability is severe and requires more than one operation to correct (Gross et. al.125). 

Jabine explains that, the 2000 CCHS (Canadian Community Health Survey) was utilized to estimate the frequency of current threats of smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, low income, hypertension and diabetes. Combining smoking frequency information from 2000 to 2012, CCHS death rate shows there is danger. The diseases have posed a real life threat to the Canadians. Canadian Mortality Data and relative risk approximate relating smoking-linked deaths and smoking from the American Cancers Society's Prevention Case Study II, SAM principles were engendered using population attributed risk devices (Heliovaara et al. 187).

Based on the self-reported information, 2000 - 2010 CCHS indicates that

  • 26.0 percent of Canadians smoke currently,
  • 14.9 percent are obese,
  • 53.5 percent are bodily inactive,
  • 11.3 percent have little income,
  • 13.0 percent have hypertensions,
  • 4.2 percent are diabetics

The high frequency of probable modifiable CVD risk factor and the large differentiation that exists among subgroups in the Canadian population highlights that the load of CVD can be lowered through risk factors modifications (Tunstall-Pedoe et al. 32). While probable data concerning risk factor in the population offered an initial comprehension of some of the causal causes of the disease, the real load of disorder caused by risk factors is modified by the scale of the increased risk factors to morbidity and mortality and is best exemplified by its approximated attributable morbidity and mortality.

The Leading Reason of Deaths in Canada

Cardiovascular disorder is the leading reason of deaths in Canada causing 37 % of entire number of deaths. However, the place you live in Canada may be a determinant of the risk of death from the heart disease. The reasons for it are the following. To begin with, the differences in cardiac health of those in rural regions who are being disadvantaged. The British Columbians have a more reduced cardiovascular mortality rates than the entire national average due to cigarette prices and anti-smoking laws (Gross et al. 131). The held in Atlantic Canada has a large amount of people with diabetes, smoking, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and high blood pressure. Poorer areas with a high rate of unemployment and lower levels of education had higher preferences of cardiovascular disorders risk factor.  In order to address the detailed geographic variations, the Canadian Cardiovascular Results Research Group recommends the establishment of a nationwide cardiovascular close watch system funding to upgrade the quantity and quality of clinical databases for studying healthcare trends and ensure that all the Canadians have the same ability to access for healthcare treatment (Heliovaara et al. 181).

Heart disease or cardiovascular disease has become an emergent threat in Canada. Also, it is the most expensive disease in Canada, therefore, putting the biggest burden on its national healthcare systems. A certain number of individual risk factors or even their combination can cause cardiovascular heart disease. They may include smoking, stress, diets with saturated fat, physical inactivity, being overweight and family histories of heart diseases. Medical conditions, like high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes and high blood pleasure are also potential risk factors which have risen up henceforth creating the current threat (Tunstall-Pedoe et al. 29).

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Generally, men are more vulnerable for this heart disease. An escalating number of females are familiarizing heart disease though they are under diagnosis. For all sexes, the risk factors of the heart disease raises with age. Due to the need of living despite the threat posed by the cardiovascular disease, there are various healthy heart tips that victims can adopt so that they can prolong their life span. To start on and the most important, a victim should not smoke at any condition (Heliovaara et al. 185). By not smoking one lowers the risk of establishing heart diseases, and quitting smoking can greatly help to raise the cholesterol in one’s blood. It also lowers the risk of developing a stroke, common cancer and heart attack. The victim should consume various types of food. With respect to the Canada's Food Guide Book, as a main part of balanced diets, we must enjoy different types of food and select defatted food. One should get moving. Staying physically active and eating well will assist in controlling the heavy body. As well, avoid miracle or fad diets. In addition, one must have frequent medical check-ups, which include determination of one’s blood cholesterol echelon. The person can as well be checked for diabetes, one of the chief risk factor for cardiovascular heart disease (Machariah 300).


In conclusion, most deaths in Canada result from the heart and blood vessels diseases. Canada is one of the most affected nations where cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of deaths. Over the last three decades, there has been extensive research on cardiovascular diseases, which has resulted in revolutionary techniques such as nuclear diagnostic equipment, echocardiography, cardiac pacemakers, artificial valves, heart-lung machines and cardiac catheterization.

Additionally, an improvement of the drugs managing heart diseases which control cardiac contraction force was conducted. However, cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of deaths in Canada. Every year, a third of Canadians loses their lives as s result of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease lowers the quality of life and leads to the increase of death rates. 

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